- Ph.D., University of Colorado at Boulder, 2005
- M.S., North Carolina State University, 1999
- B.S., University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, 1996
- University of Washington, 2005-2008
Seed dispersal ecology, avian ecology, and plant ecology
My research centers on studying interactions between plants and animals (birds mostly) that eat fruit and disperse seeds. Thus, I merge zoological and botanical approaches to formulate questions about the organization and ecology of plant communities and habitats. I strive to understand how the foraging and movement behavior of fruit-eating birds has an impact on the patterning, demography, and migration of plant populations and diversity. In my lab we use stable-isotope methods to track the fate of seeds and trophic interactions. Current projects take place in the Caribbean (Puerto Rico), Argentina, Bolivia, Spain, and in the central Pennsylvania area.
Carlo, T. A. and J. M. Morales. 2008. Inequalities in fruit-removal and seed dispersal: consequences of bird behaviour, neighbourhood density, and landscape aggregation. Journal of Ecology 96: 609-618.
Tewksbury, J. J., K. M. Reagan, J. Noelle, N. J. Machnicki, T. A. Carlo, D. C. Haak, A. L. Calderón-Peñaloza, and D. J. Levey. 2008. The evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(33): 11808-11811.
Carlo, T. A., J. E. Aukema, and J. M. Morales. 2007. Plant-frugivore interactions as spatially explicit networks: integrating animal foraging and fruiting plant spatial patterns. Pages 369-390 In: Dennis, A., E. Schupp, and D. Wescott (Eds.) Seed Dispersal: Theory and its Application in a Changing World.
Carlo, T. A. and J. E. Aukema. 2005. Female directed dispersal and facilitation between a tropical mistletoe and its dioecious host. Ecology 86: 3245-3251.
Carlo, T. A. 2005. Interspecifc neighbors change seed dispersal pattern of an avian-dispersed plant. Ecology 86: 2440-2449.
Carlo, T. A., J. A. Collazo, and M. J. Groom. 2004. Influences of fruit diversity and abundance on bird use of two shaded coffee plantations. Biotropica 36(4): 602-614.
Carlo, T. A., J. A. Collazo, and M. J. Groom. 2003. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: pattern consistency and implications for seed removal. Oecologia 134: 119-131.