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PSU Biology Courses - full listing

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Descriptions of Biology Courses offered across the PSU Campus Locations. NOTE: Not all courses are offered at any one specific campus. Visit the schedule of courses to determine where and when a specific course is available.

BIOL 001 Preparation Skills for Success in Biology and Life Sciences (1) A foundation course that emphasizes study skills and reviews basic biological, chemistry and mathematical principles.
Effective: Spring 2012
Prerequisite: Enrollment in the course requires permission of the program

BIOL 003 Peer Learning in Biology (1) Group and learning skills to facilitate the understanding of complex biological processes.
Effective: Spring 2006
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in biology or life science course and permission of program.

BIOL 011 (GN) Introductory Biology I (3) An introduction to fundamental biological topics (including cells, energy transduction, genetics, evolution, organismal structure/function, ecology) for non-majors biology-related fields.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 011H (GN) Introductory Biology I (3) An introduction to fundamental biological topics (including cells, energy transduction, genetics, evolution, organismal structure/function, ecology) for non-majors biology-related fields.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 012 (GN) Introductory Biology II (1) Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of biology.
Effective: Summer 1992
Prerequisite: or concurrent:BIOL 011

BIOL 012H (GN) Introductory Biology II (1) Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of biology.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015
Prerequisite: or concurrent:BIOL 011

BIOL 110 (GN) Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 110H (GN) Honors Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) Honors study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Spring 2006

BIOL 110L (GN) Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Summer 1994

BIOL 110P (GN) Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Summer 1994

BIOL 110S (GN) Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology. This course also fulfills the First-Year Seminar requirements.
Effective: Summer 1999

BIOL 110T (GN) Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 120A (GN;US;IL) Plants, Places, and People (3) Useful and dangerous plants; historical (archaeological), cultural (ethnological), and economic (anthropocentric) aspects, including structural and chemical characteristics of botanical importance. Students who have passed BIOL (PPATH;S T S) 424 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 120U (GN;US;IL) Plants, Places, and People (3) Useful and dangerous plants; historical (archaeological), cultural (ethnological), and economic (anthropocentric) aspects, including structural and chemical characteristics of botanical importance. Students who have passed BIOL (PPATH;S T S) 424 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2016 Ending: Spring 2016 Future: Spring 2016

BIOL 127 (GN) Introduction to Plant Biology (3) Cellular structure and organization; physiological processes; classification; reproduction and development; relationship of plant groups. Students who have passed BIOL 240W may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 129 (GN) Mammalian Anatomy (4) Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 129L (GN) Mammalian Anatomy (4) Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 129P (GN) Mammalian Anatomy Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 1998

BIOL 133 (GN) Genetics and Evolution of the Human Species (3) Human heredity and evolution, individual and social implications. The course is for non-majors; students who have passed BIOL 222, 230W, B M B 251 or any upper-division biology course may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 141 (GN) Introductory Physiology (3) Explanation of the normal structure and function of the animal body, with special emphasis on human body systems. Students who have passed BIOL 472 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 142 Physiology Laboratory (1) Experiments demonstrating basic physiological principles, with special reference to man.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: or concurrent:BIOL 141

BIOL 155 (GN) Introduction to the Biology of Aging (3) Examination of human aging from a biological perspective. Population demographics, physiological and pathological changes, and healthy lifestyles are discussed. Students who have passed BIOL 409 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 177 (GN) Biology of Sex (3) Basic structure and function of the human reproductive system. Physiology of gametogenesis, fertilization, contraception, gestation, parturition, lactation, and sexual behavior.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 199 (IL) Foreign Studies (1-12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005

BIOL 200 Introduction to Pharmacological Concepts (3) Presents basic concepts of pharmacology; includes major drug classifications, pharmaceutical preparations, and biological implications relevant to these therapeutic agents.
Effective: Spring 1995

BIOL 220M (GN) Honors Biology: Populations and Communities (4) Honors study of the major physical, chemical, and biological factors constituting environment and their dynamic interaction with organisms forming ecosystems.
Effective: Summer 2005
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 220W (GN) Biology: Populations and Communities (4) A study of the structures and functions of organismic interactions from simple populations to complex ecosystems. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)
BIOL 220W GN, 230W GN, and 240W GN each carry only 1 credit to "Writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the W requirement. Effective: Fall 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 222 Genetics (3) Variation and heredity in plants and animals, including man; relationships of genetical knowledge to evolution and breeding practices.
Effective: Spring 1995
Prerequisite: 3 credits in biological sciences

BIOL 223 Laboratory in Genetics (1) Principles of genetics illustrated with Drosophila breeding experiments and with demonstrations of plant and animal materials.
Effective: Spring 2008
Prerequisite: BIOL 133 orBIOL 222

BIOL 230M (GN) Honors Biology: Molecules and Cells (4) Honors study of cellular phenomena including molecular genetics and metabolic interactions.
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, CHEM 110

BIOL 230W (GN) Biology: Molecules and Cells (4) A study of cellular phenomena including molecular genetics and metabolic interactions. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)
BIOL 220W GN, 230W GN, and 240W GN each carry only 1 credit to "Writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the W requirement. Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, CHEM 110

BIOL 240M (GN) Honors Biology: Function and Development of Organisms (4) Honors study of development and physiological processes at the organismic level. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, CHEM 110

BIOL 240W (GN) Biology: Function and Development of Organisms (4) A study of development and physiological processes at the organismic level. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)
BIOL 220W GN, 230W GN, and 240W GN each carry only 1 credit to "Writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the W requirement. Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, CHEM 110

BIOL 251 Peer Leadership in Biology (1) Leadership training in guiding others to learn, communicate, and apply biological principles.
Effective: Spring 2006
Prerequisite: 8 credits in biology or life science courses and permission of program

BIOL 294 Research Project (1-6) Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small-group basis.
Effective: Fall 2014

BIOL 296 Independent Studies (1-18) Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.
Effective: Fall 1983

BIOL 296A Laboratory Teaching Experience in Biology (1-6) This course concentrates on the various philosophies and methods of teaching b iology at the college level. Special emphasis is placed on inquiry learning and diversity of classroom environments. Techniques of preparing student objectives will be discussed. The course is designed to give the student practice in planning and presenting lectures, lecture demonstrations, and lab investigations.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015
Prerequisite: Approval of program

BIOL 296F Cloning of Zebrafish PEBP (1) Cloning of the zebrafish ortholog of the human metastasis suppressor gene PEBP for future expression analysis.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 297 Special Topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject which may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 1983

BIOL 297A Human Anatomy Up Close: Science, Society, and Dissection (1) This course will discuss the nature of science in general and the unique place anatomy occupies within the science spectrum. Further discussion will trace the development of anatomy through the ages and its connections to art and religion and culture. With this as a backdrop, students will engage in a series of investigatory activities that will help to clarify the nature of anatomic inquiry. These activities will involve directed dissections and assessments of selected non-human speciments. Other assigned activities will allow students to sharpen their powers and observation, familiarize themselves with the basic mammalian body plan, recognize the interrelatedness between structure and function, discover the consistency of structural design at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, and evaluate skeletal details to determine sex or age.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 297A Health Care Issues Reading Seminar (1) Reading Seminar for students with an interest in the health professions. This course is designed to encourage reading, critical evaluation, reflection, and discussion using historical and current issues in the health professions. Students will read books, journal articles and news articles relevant to health care issues. They will be required to attend and participate in weekly 50 minute class discussions. Enrollment limited to students with at least 2nd semester standing and approval of the instructor.
Effective: Spring 2016 Ending: Spring 2016 Future: Spring 2016

BIOL 297B (ENGL 297B) Genetics and Literature (1) Approach great novels through two avenues: science and literature. Join English faculty member Dr. Laura Rotunno and biology faculty member Dr. Esther Siegfried for this ten-week, one-day-a-week discussion of novels that explore scientific questions such as: should we use clones? When are advances in genetic and bioengineering research progress and when are they threats? Is your identity dictated by your genes? And the big one: what can science and art learn from each other?
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 297C Integrative Pharmacology (3) Review the basic concepts of pharmacology and relate these concepts to the pathophysiological changes associated with the disease state.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 297D Intro to Pathophysiological Concepts (3) Covers the alteration of basic physiological processes associated with the disease state.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 322 Genetic Analysis (3) A discussion of the mechanisms of heredity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes with emphasis on analysis and modes of inference.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: at least two of the following courses:BIOL 220W, BIOL 230W, BIOL 240W orMICRB 201

BIOL 399 (IL) Foreign Studies (1-12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005

BIOL 400 Teaching in Biology (1-3) This course will train biology teaching assistants to teach in the laboratory/ recitation setting with emphasis on critical thinking skills. Enrollment will be limited to students of at least fifth semester standing that have been accepted as teaching assistants for biology.
Effective: Fall 2006
Prerequisite: Enrollment will be limited to students of at lease fifth semester standing who are or have been accepted as teaching assistants in a life science course.

BIOL 402W Biological Experimental Design (3) Discussion of experimental design, analysis and presentation, with a practicum providing for student design, analysis and presentation of biological experiments. Students may not take this course if they have taken BIOBD 350W.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: at least two of the following three courses:BIOL 220W, BIOL 230W, BIOL 240W;STAT 250

BIOL 404 Cellular Mechanisms in Vertebrate Physiology (3) This course considers cellular mechanisms governing physiological aspects of vertebrate cell signaling and their adaptation to particular organismal functions.
Effective: Spring 2001
Prerequisite: B M B 251 orBIOL 230W

BIOL 405 Molecular Evolution (3) Introduction to concepts and techniques of analysis of molecular sequence data from an evolutionary point of view.
Effective: Fall 1994
Prerequisite: BIOL 222 orBIOL 230W

BIOL 406 Symbiosis (3) This course covers a variety of different types of symbiotic relationships between unicellular symbionts and plants, fungi, or animals.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: BIOL 110;BIOL 220W, BIOL 230W orBIOL 240W

BIOL 407 Plant Developmental Anatomy (3) This course will examine the development of basic vascular plant anatomical structures including leaves, stems, roots, and flowers.
Effective: Fall 2005
Prerequisite: BIOL 240W

BIOL 409 Biology of Aging (3) Mechanisms of the aging process, with special reference to man. Unfavorable progressive changes in molecules, cells, systems, and organisms.
Effective: Summer 1984
Prerequisite: 6 credits in biology

BIOL 411 Medical Embryology (3) Develops an understanding of human reproductive physiology, embryological processes, their time frames, and the development of major human body systems. The course emphasizes clinical correlations and the medical consequences of developmental abnormalities.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 6 credits of biology

BIOL 412 Ecology of Infectious Diseases (3) This course examines how ecological processes impact upon the epidemiology of infectious diseases.
Effective: Fall 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W orH P A 440

BIOL 413 Cell Signaling and Regulation (3) Introduction to the themes of cellular signaling and regulation through critical review of primary literature.
Effective: Spring 1998
Prerequisite: BIOL 240W

BIOL 414 Taxonomy of Seed Plants (3) Basic principles and procedures in the practice of angiosperm systematics.
Effective: Fall 1994
Prerequisite: BIOL 240W

BIOL 415 Ecotoxicology (3) Major concepts and controversies in the interdisciplinary field of ecological toxicology; toxicity analysis, remediation, and case studies of environmental pollution.
Effective: Spring 1995
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, BIOL 220W;FOR 308 orW F S 209

BIOL 416 Biology of Cancer (3) This course intends to illustrate biological basis of cancer development, and discusses aspects on prevention, detection, and treatment of cancer.
Effective: Spring 1999
Prerequisite: BIOL 222 orBIOL 230W

BIOL 417 Invertebrate Zoology (4) Function and form of major invertebrate phyla.
Effective: Fall 1994
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 419 Ecological and Environmental Problem Solving (3) Overview of processes involved in solving environmental problems. Provides students with toolkit for understanding ecological and environmental problems.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W

BIOL 420 (GEOSC 420) Paleobotany (3) Classification, morphology, phylogeny, and stratigraphic occurrence of fossil plants; practicum includes field trips and study of paleobotanical techniques and specimens.
Effective: Spring 2005
Prerequisite: any 3 credit introductory course in historical geology or plant biology

BIOL 421 (VB SC 421) Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4) The comparative anatomy of representative vertebrate animals discussed from a descriptive and an evolutionary viewpoint.
Effective: Spring 2008
Prerequisite: BIOL 240W

BIOL 422 Advanced Genetics (3) Chromosomal mechanism of heredity; cytoplasmic and polygenic inheritance, chemical genetics, genomics, and experimental evolution.
Effective: Fall 2010
Prerequisite: one genetics or genetic based course includingBIOL 133, BIOL 222, BIOL 322 orBIOL 230W

BIOL 424 Seeds of Change: The Uses of Plants (3) Interdisciplinary approach to the biology, chemistry, history, and culture of the interactions between plants and people.
Effective: Spring 2009
Prerequisite: BIOL 110;BIOL 220W, BIOL 230W orBIOL 240W

BIOL 425 (PPEM 425) Biology of Fungi (4) A survey of the biological diversity of fungi, stressing evolution, ecololgy, disease, morphology, life histories, and importance to human affairs.
Effective: Spring 2014
Prerequisite: fifth-semester or graduate standing in a biological sciences major with six credits completed in the major

BIOL 426 Developmental Neurobiology (3) Overview of basic developmental processes as they apply to the central nervous system.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 141 orBIOL 240

BIOL 427 Evolution (3) Selected topics on the evolution of life.
Effective: Spring 1995
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W, BIOL 230W

BIOL 428 Population Genetics (3) Mathematical formulation of evolution by natural selection, genetic equilibrium under selection, mutation, migration, random drift.
Effective: Spring 2001
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W, STAT 250;MATH 111 orMATH 141

BIOL 429 Animal Behavior (3) Physiological mechanisms, ecological relevance, and adaptive significance of animal behavior.
Effective: Spring 1999
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, BIOL 220W

BIOL 430 (B M B 430, ENT 430) Developmental Biology (3) Molecular and genetic analyses of mechanisms involved in differentiation and determination in biological systems.
Effective: Summer 1994
Prerequisite: B M B 252 ; orBIOL 222, BIOL 230W

BIOL 431 Reproductive Biology (3) Reproduction is essential to all life and the course will explore development, physiology, cell biology, genetic and evolutionary aspects of this area.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 andBIOL 230 orB M B 251 orMICRO 251 orBIOL 240

BIOL 432 Developmental Genetics (3) An advanced course in developmental biology, focusing on the use of genetics techniques to study fundamental questions of animal development.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: BIOL 230W ; orB M B 251, B M B 252

BIOL 433 Evolution of Vertebrates (3) Evolution of vertebrate animals, including classification systems based upon morphology and genetics, insights for special adaptations.
Effective: Spring 2014
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 andBIOL 220W andBIOL 240W

BIOL 434 Pathobiology of Emerging Infectious Disease (3) The course will analyze the pathology, immunology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, and policy of important emerging and reemerging infectious diseases.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 andBIOL 230 orMICRO 251 orB M B 251 orMICRO 201

BIOL 435 Ecology of Lakes and Streams (3-4) Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of freshwater environments, with special emphasis on factors regulating productivity in freshwater ecosystems.
Effective: Fall 2011
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W

BIOL 436 Population Ecology and Global Climate Change (3) Ecological responses of individuals, populations, and communities to environmental variation, with emphasis on climate change.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 220

BIOL 437 Histology (4) Microscopic structure of the tissue of the animal body.
Effective: Fall 1994
Prerequisite: BIOL 230W

BIOL 438 Theoretical Population Ecology (3) Theoretical discussions of demographics, population and metapopulation growth models, life histories, and species interactions such as competition, predation, host-parasitoid relationships.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W, MATH 140, STAT 250

BIOL 439 Practical Bioinformatics (3) Practical aspects of retrieving and analyzing biological information residing in common databases.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 230 orB M B 251

BIOL 441 Plant Physiology (3) Classical and current concepts in plant constituents, mineral nutrition, water relations, respiration, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, plant hormones, growth, and development.
Effective: Spring 1995
Prerequisite: BIOL 230W, BIOL 240W

BIOL 443 Evo-devo: Evolution of Developmental Mechanisms (3) How evolution of animals and plants can be traced to changes in the regulation and/or interactions of genes controlling development.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 240

BIOL 444 Field Ecology (3) This field course will explore the flora and fauna of the mid-Atlantic area.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W

BIOL 446 Physiological Ecology (3) The physiological abilities of plants and animals to adapt to their abiotic environment.
Effective: Fall 1994
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W, BIOL 240W

BIOL 448 Ecology of Plant Reproduction (3) Analysis of the ecology, evolution, and natural history of angiosperm reproduction, including pollination, fruit-set, dispersal, and relevant plant- animal interactions.
Effective: Fall 1994
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W

BIOL 450W Experimental Field Biology (3-5) A practical introduction to modern experimental techniques for ecological study of terrestrial, marine, and fresh water habitats.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W, BIOL 240W

BIOL 451 Biology of RNA (3) Survey of the roles of RNA in biology, emphasizing evolutionary relationships and relevance to human health.
Effective: Spring 2014
Prerequisite: BIOL 230 orB M B 251 orMICRB 251

BIOL 459 (BIOTC 459, HORT 459) Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology (3) Principles and techniques for the in vitro culture, propagation, and genetic manipulations of plant cells.
Effective: Fall 1999
Prerequisite: BIOL 230W ; orB M B 251, B M B 252

BIOL 460 (ANTH 460) Human Genetics (3) The human genome, its variation, origins, and relation to disease and other traits.
Effective: Fall 2015
Prerequisite: ANTH 021 orBIOL 110 orBIOL 133 or persmission of program for a different course that covers introductory genetics topics for at least part of the semester

BIOL 460H (ANTH 460H) Human Genetics (4) Gene mapping in humans; molecular basis of genetic disease; gnomic structure; immunogenetics; and genetic evidence for human evolutionary history.
Effective: Fall 2001
Prerequisite: 3 credits in genetics orANTH 021 orBIOL 222 orBIOL 230W ; and 3 credits in statistics

BIOL 461 Contemporary Issues in Science and Medicine (3) Current/classical issues relating to health, research, agriculture, environment, and biotechnology. Active exploration of the impact of science on society.
Effective: Spring 2003
Prerequisite: A 400-level Biology course.

BIOL 463 General Ecology (3) Illustrates science of ecology, from individual, population, and community- level perspectives, discusses applications of this science to issues of conservation of biodiversity.
Effective: Spring 2002
Prerequisite: BIOL 220

BIOL 464 Sociobiology (3) The study of the adaptive function of social behavior, the comparative analysis of social organization, and the ecology of sociality.
Effective: Summer 2012
Prerequisite: 6 credits in biology or anthropology

BIOL 467 Molecular Basis of Neurological Diseases (3) Students taking this course will learn about neurological diseases in a biological molecular context.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 andBIOL 230 orB M B 251 orMICRO 251 orBIOL 240

BIOL 469 (BB H 469) Neurobiology (3) Comprehensive examination of neuroanatomy and physiology designed to integrate the principles of neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, and molecular biology.
Effective: Spring 1995
Prerequisite: BIOL 240W

BIOL 470 (BB H 470) Functional and Integrative Neurosciences (3) Neurobiological function in motivated behaviors, motor and sensory functions, learning and memory development, sexual differentiation, and pathology.
Effective: Summer 1995
Prerequisite: BIOL 469

BIOL 472 Mammalian Physiology (3) Mechanisms concerned with normal animal function, with special emphasis on humans.
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 240W, CHEM 203

BIOL 473 Laboratory in Mammalian Physiology (2) Laboratory experiments demonstrating fundamentals in physiology.
Effective: Summer 1985
Prerequisite: or concurrent:BIOL 472

BIOL 474 (GEOSC 474) Astrobiology (3) In depth treatment of principles/concepts of biochemical evolution, the origin/evolution of life; evaluation of distribution of life in the universe.
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110, CHEM 110

BIOL 479 (AN SC 479) General Endocrinology (3) Endocrine mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis, homeostasis, and functional integration of animals.
Effective: Fall 2009
Prerequisite: BIOL 141 orBIOL 472

BIOL 482 Coastal Biology (3-4) Marine organisms, their interactions with each other, and their relationships with several coastal habitats.
Effective: Spring 2010
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W

BIOL 492 Senior Seminar in Biology (1) Discussion of selected topics from recent biological literature; reports on current research or internship experiences.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 18 credits in Biology; seventh-semester standing

BIOL 494 Research Project (1-12) Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small-group basis.
Effective: Summer 2010

BIOL 495 Internship in Biology (1-12) Practical off-campus experience in Biology under the supervision of a professional and a faculty member.
Effective: Spring 2013

BIOL 496 Independent Studies (1-18) Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.
Effective: Fall 1983

BIOL 496A COI sequence variation in Lutzomyia vexator (2) An examination of COI sequence variation for 45 Lutzomyia vexator speciments in 3 states.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 496B COI sequence variation in Lutzomyia vexator (3) An examination of COI sequence variation for 45 Lutzomyia vexator speciments in 3 states.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 497 Special Topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject which may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 1983

BIOL 497A (PHYS 497A) Introductory and Comparative Immunology (3) An overview of the immune system and comparison of human, domestic animal and avian immunology.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 497D Analysis of Biological Data (3) Biological stories intrigue us, and we commonly encounter surprising conclusions, such as "cats falling from greater than nine stories sustain fewer injuries", "regular aspirin use prevents cancer", "brown recluse spiders prefer to eat dead crickets", or "jet lag can be prevented by exposing the back of the knee to light". What are the data that support these claims? How are they evaluated and presented? At the center of biological research is the collection, analysis, and presentation of data. We will explore this process through the examination of studies published in different fields of biology. Students who have successfully complete this course will have a broad understanding of the types of data that biologists collect, how these data are analyzed, including the application of different statistical tests and determination of the significance of results, and how results from these studies are interpreted and presented.
Effective: Spring 2016 Ending: Spring 2016 Future: Spring 2016
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 497E Biodiversity of Pennsylvania (3) This course will provide an integrated approach to the biological diversity of Pennsylvania. Case studies will illustrate important evolutionary, ecological, and systematic concepts in current biodiversity research, such as species distribution, species identification, and species richness. Biodiversity will also be studied within a broader societal context, in relation to issues that Pennsylvania faces today, such as natural resources, energy development, natural areas protection, endangered species, invasive species, and water quality.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 497F Science Outreach and Communication (1) As a practical course, BIOL 497F will give you the skills and experience to communicate your science effectively and design outreach activities based around your own research interests. You will develop the skills to communicate scientific knowledge to audiences of different ages and backgrounds, craft lesson plans to maximize the impact of your outreach, coordinate with community and academic partners, incorporate outreach objectives into grants, and reach broader audiences through the press and social media. As research is increasingly a collaborative effort, so is outreach; most coursework will center on small teams working together. This course will provide you with the opportunity to integrate your research knowledge with novel skillsets to create original outreach programs and grow your confidence and experience in presenting your science to diverse audiences.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2015

BIOL 498 (ENT 498) Special Topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Spring 1993

BIOL 499 (IL) Foreign Studies (1-12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005

BIOL 499A (IL) Tropical Field Ecology (3) An intensive introduction to tropical biodiversity to be taught in Belize, Central America.
Effective: Summer 2005
Prerequisite: BIOL 220W