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These 497 course credits can be used to fulfill the 400-level Biology requirements in all Biology major options. Please check with an adviser to find out which 400-level group can be satisfied if you are interested in one of these courses.

BIOL 497 Special Topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject which may be topical or of special interest.

Effective: Fall 1983

BIOL 497A History of Biology (3) History of Biology is a 3 credit lecture course designed to introduce students to the long history that led to our current biological knowledge. The course is organized around themes representing some of the most important concepts in biology, such as macromolecules, the cell, inheritance, evolution, metabolism, biodiversity, and ecosystems. Lectures illustrate the interplay between observations, theories, experiments, and techniques. The history of biology is placed within a broader historical and cultural context (scientists and institutions from many different periods and countries are studied).
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2016
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 and BIOL 220W orBIOL 230W orBIOL 240W or permission of program

BIOL 497A Networks in Life Science (3) Introduction of networks analysis and modeling techniques applied to molecular and cellular-level interaction networks.
Effective: Spring 2015 Ending: Spring 2015 Future: Spring 2015

BIOL 497B Biological Oceanography (3) This course will expose students to the wide range of organisms, from microbes to animals, living in the open ocean. Topics covered include how organisms survivie in aquatic environments, their physiology, ecology and evolution. We will discuss how life in the ocean is affected by depth range from the shallow photic zone to the deep seafloor as well as by ocean currents and continents. You will also learn about biological-physical interactions and the different methodological approaches to study biological oceanography.
Effective: Spring 2015 Ending: Spring 2015 Future: Spring 2015
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 497C Comparative Neuroanatomy (3) Structural-functional organization of the central nervous system of primates and other vertebrates. Emphasis is placed on understanding the anatomical structure of the major neural systems and the evolutionary principles that guided their phylogenetic development in different vertebrate lineages.
Effective: Spring 2015 Ending: Spring 2015 Future: Spring 2015

BIOL 497D Analysis of Biological Data (3) Biological stories intrigue us, and we commonly encounter surprising conclusions, such as "cats falling from greater than nine stories sustain fewer injuries", "regular aspirin use prevents cancer", "brown recluse spiders prefer to eat dead crickets", or "jet lag can be prevented by exposing the back of the knee to light". What are the data that support these claims? How are they evaluated and presented? At the center of biological research is the collection, analysis, and presentation of data. We will explore this process through the examination of studies published in different fields of biology. Students who have successfully complete this course will have a broad understanding of the types of data that biologists collect, how these data are analyzed, including the application of different statistical tests and determination of the significance of results, and how results from these studies are interpreted and presented.
Effective: Spring 2015 Ending: Fall 2016
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 497E Biodiversity of Pennsylvania (3) This course will provide an integrated approach to the biological diversity of Pennsylvania. Case studies will illustrate important evolutionary, ecological, and systematic concepts in current biodiversity research, such as species distribution, species identification, and species richness. Biodiversity will also be studied within a broader societal context, in relation to issues that Pennsylvania faces today, such as natural resources, energy development, natural areas protection, endangered species, invasive species, and water quality.
Effective: Fall 2015 Ending: Fall 2016
Prerequisite: BIOL 110