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Biology 407 Plant Developmental Anatomy SPRING 2014


Instructor: Dr. Gabriele Monshausen

264 N Frear

867-3339 (


Office hours: 3:30-4:30 pm, Thursday (or by appointment)

Note: If you need to contact me by email, please use the above address.

Do not send course mail through ANGEL as I don’t check it.


T.A.s: Wanyan Wang (

Christopher Mann (


Time: Mondays, Wednesdays, 11:15 am - 12:05 pm

Fridays (Section 1) 11:15 am - 12:05 pm

Fridays (Section 2) 1:25 - 2:15 pm

Fridays (Section 3) 9:05 – 9:55 am



M W, 105 Wartik for lectures

F, 150 North Frear for labs


Course Description:

The course will provide students with an understanding of the developmental anatomy of plant organs and tissues. More specifically, the course will focus on the development and internal structure of leaves, roots, stems, flowers and fruits in flowering seed plants throughout their lifecycle. When appropriate, the course will discuss genes involved in the formation and function of these organs and how organ development is affected by environmental inputs.

In laboratory sections, observational skills will be trained by applying knowledge gained in lectures to the analysis of plant anatomical structures. Plant developmental responses to environmental stresses will be studied using light microscopy and digital image acquisition.

Primary scientific literature related to the lecture topics will be assigned as reading material to be discussed in class.



Objectives and goals of this course:

By the end of this course, you should 

-Be familiar with the internal organization and function of plant organs at the cell and tissue level

-Understand the role of gene expression in differentiation and morphogenesis

-Become familiar with adaptation and acclimation in the development of plant structures 

-Be able to employ microscopy techniques to analyze the structure and composition of plant cells and tissues

-Know how to critically read scientific papers

-Learn how to design, conduct and interpret a scientific experiment


Reading assignments: 

Citations for assigned readings will be sent to you via email. You are responsible for finding the papers using any of the research databases/PSU library links (, downloading the papers and then reading them.


Required reading:

Raven, Evert, Eichhorn: Biology of Plants, Freeman and Co. Publishers, 2005 (7th edition)


Evert, Eichhorn: Raven Biology of Plants, Freeman and Co. Publishers, 2013 (8th edition)


You are expected to be familiar with the material on plant anatomy covered in BIOL240; see relevant chapters in Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Jackson.  2011. Campbell Biology, 9th edition, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings


Suggested reading:

Beck: An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development, Cambridge University Press, 2010

Evert: Esau’s Plant Anatomy, Wiley Interscience, 2006




The course grade will be determined as follows*:


Two exams (1 mid-term, 1 final exam covering all lectures and labs)

Mid-term exam                                         =  20%

Final exam                                                = 20%


Weekly Quizzes (covering lectures, labs and reading assignments; 3 lowest scores may be dropped)                                                  = 10%


Clicker questions                                      = 10%

Lab notebook with drawings                    = 25%

Attendance and effort, homework            = 15%


Grades will be determined on the following scale: 


A = 100-93%; A- = 92-90%; B+ = 89-87%; B = 86-83%; B- = 82-80%; C+ = 79-77%; C = 76-70%; D = 69-60%; F = below 60%.


*In extraordinary circumstances, the final grades may be based on fewer than 100%.


A missed quiz will be graded as 0% (3 lowest scores may be dropped).


Drawings will be collected after each lab.


If you know ahead of time that you must miss a lab section or exam, please inform a TA and Dr. Monshausen prior to the date.




You will be responsible for understanding all material presented during lecture and/or posted on the course website. During the final exam period you will be given one final exam that consists of two parts:  one lecture exam on new material and a comprehensive final exam. The comprehensive final will cover material from the entire semester. Attendance at exams is mandatory; if you miss the scheduled exam you must contact the course faculty within 24 hours of missing the exam and preferably before the exam starts. The following are the only legitimate excuses for missing an exam:


A University sponsored event (with note from sponsor) 

Religious holiday recognized by PSU 

Death in the family (you must provide documentation with a date)

If you miss an exam for any of the above reasons and provide your verification of absence, you will be given the opportunity to take the exam within 7 days of the exam.  After that time, feedback to the class will be released and you will no longer be able to make up the exam.  Social functions (family reunions, weddings) are not legitimate excuses for missing an exam.  If you are unsure about your excuse, ask the course instructor before your absence.  As adults, it is your responsibility to provide reasonable verification; each situation is unique, and we can be flexible. 


Final Exam: 

The final exam will be given at the time and place set by the University in its final exam schedule which will be posted on eLion. Do not make plans to leave the University before you know the final exam date – travel is not a legitimate reason for scheduling a conflict for the final exam (final exams run from 8 a.m. Monday, May 5th through 8:50 p.m. Friday, May9th).  Locations for the exam will be announced in class and posted on the web.



The syllabus is subject to change.  The Instructors reserve the right to make changes to items on this syllabus, including changes to the lecture and lab schedules, and lecture and lab topics and assignments. 







Fr (lab)

Week 1 (Jan 13)

Intro / Plant Body

Plant Cell


Week 2 (Jan 20)


Plant Cell

Introduction to the

Light Microscope

Week 3 (Jan 27)

Plant Cell

Plant Cell

Plant Cell

Week 4 (Feb 3)

Primary Tissues I –

Ground Tissue

 Plant Genetic Engineering

Support Tissue

Week 5 (Feb 10)

Plant Genetic Engineering - Applications


Primary Tissues II - Dermal

Tissues: Epidermis


Week 6 (Feb 17)

Primary Tissues II - Dermal

Tissues: Epidermis

Primary Tissues II - Dermal

Tissues: Epidermis


Week 7 (Feb 24)

Primary Tissues III –

Vascular Tissues:

Primary Xylem & Phloem


Vascular Tissues

Week 8 (March 3)

Primary Tissues III –

Vascular Tissues:

Primary Xylem & Phloem

Embryogenesis, Shoot Apical Meristem, Phytomer

Vascular Tissues

Spring break




Week 9 (Mar 17)

Secondary Tissues –

Secondary Phloem & Xylem, Periderm

Secondary Tissues –

Secondary Phloem & Xylem, Periderm

Stem, Bark & Wood

Week 9 (Mar 24)

Leaf Structure & Architecture

Leaf Structure & Architecture


Week 10 (Mar 31)

Root Structure & Architecture

Root Structure & Architecture


Week 11 (April 7)

Root Structure & Architecture

Structure of Flower &

Floral Organs

Reproductive organs

Week 12 (Apr 14)

Meiosis &


Pollination, Seed & Fruit

Reproductive organs

Week 13 (Apr 21)

Pollination, Seed & Fruit

Modified Organs, Symbioses

Modified Organs, Symbioses

Week 14 (Apr 28)

Modified Organs, Symbioses


105 Wartik


105 Wartik

Academic Integrity/Academic Dishonesty:

 Professional behavior includes academic integrity.  Academic dishonesty is not limited to simply cheating on an exam or assignment.  The following is quoted directly from the "PSU Faculty Senate Policies for Students" regarding academic integrity and academic dishonesty:  “Academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner. Academic integrity is a basic guiding principle for all academic activity at The Pennsylvania State University, and all members of the University community are expected to act in accordance with this principle. Consistent with this expectation, the University's Code of Conduct states that all students should act with personal integrity, respect other students' dignity, rights and property, and help create and maintain an environment in which all can succeed through the fruits of their efforts. Academic integrity includes a commitment by all members of the University community not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception. Such acts of dishonesty violate the fundamental ethical principles of the University community and compromise the worth of work completed by others.” Lying to gain an advantage over other students is also an academic integrity violation.  

All University and Departmental policies regarding academic integrity/academic dishonesty apply to this course and the students enrolled in this course.  Refer to the academic integrity policies of the Eberly College of Science (  Each student in this course is expected to work entirely on her/his own while taking any exam, to complete assignments on her/his own effort without the assistance of others unless directed otherwise by the instructor or teaching assistant, and to abide by University and College policies on academic integrity and academic dishonesty.  If you have any questions about an assignment, please ask.  Academic dishonesty either in lab or lecture will be sanctioned and can result in assignment of “F” by the course instructors or "XF" by Judicial Affairs as the final grade for the student.  Students are responsible for ensuring that their work is consistent with Penn State's expectations about academic integrity.


Note to students with disabilities: 

Penn State welcomes students with disabilities into the University's educational programs. If you have a disability-related need for reasonable academic adjustments in this course, contact the Office for Disability Services (ODS) at 814-863-1807 (V/TTY). For further information regarding ODS, please visit the Office for Disability Services Web site  (

In order to receive consideration for course accommodations, you must contact ODS and provide documentation ( If the documentation supports the need for academic adjustments, ODS will provide a letter identifying appropriate academic adjustments. Please share this letter and discuss the adjustments with your instructor as early in the course as possible. You must contact ODS and request academic adjustment letters at the beginning of each semester.